From NKAA, Notable Kentucky African Americans Database (main entry)

Freemen Community on Samaná Bay (Dominican Republic)

(born: 1824) 

In 1824, an isolated community of about 200 freemen (or escaped slaves) from Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and Kentucky was established on Samana Bay as a colony of the Haitian Republic. The move to the settlement was under the direction of Bishop Richard Allen of the AME Church in Philadelphia, PA. It has also been written that Haitian President Jean Pierre Boyer conspired with abolitionists in Pennsylvania to finance the passage and resettlement of the former slaves as a strategic move to strengthen his rule. Boyer and his forces had overthrown the previous government of Spanish Haiti in 1822 and slavery had again been abolished. There were a series of rebellions, and Boyer was overthrown in 1843. Haiti became independent in 1844. The Dominican Republic also became independent from Haiti in 1844, and the territory included Samana Bay and the American inhabitants. There would be several attempts by Haiti to retake the Dominican Republic, and the Dominican government sought protection by attempting to become annexed to either Spain or the United States.

During the American Civil War, there were plans by the President Lincoln Administration to purchase the country, but the plans fell through. In 1874, Samana bay and inlet were purchased by an American company, backed by the U.S. Government. Samana was redeveloped into what was to become an independent country. The ownership lasted for one year; the company overextended its finances and was not able to pay the annual rent owed to the U.S. Government, so the treaty was revoked. At various points throughout the 19th Century and the early 20th Century, the U.S. Government pursued the idea of annexing the Dominican Republic and leasing Samana Bay to be used as a naval station; Congress vetoed the plans. The U.S. did not establish a presence in the Caribbean until the Spanish-American War.

Some of the Americans on Samana Bay became very prosperous, they built churches and schools and made a handsome living from growing cocoa, and shipbuilding and sailing. They traded with the United States. They sent their children back to the U.S. for higher education. There is a video on YouTube with historian Martha Willmore interviewing Dr. Dana Minyana who talks of the continued history of the Americans who arrived on Samana Bay

For more see "Purchase of Samana Bay, New York Observer and Chronicle, 01/30/1873, p.38; A. Modley, "Paradise found - old and new," Crisis, January 1975, pp.30-31; American Negro Songs, by J. W. Works; Central and South America, by A. H. Keane and C. R. Markham [available full-text at Google Book Search]; and Adventure Guide to the Dominican Republic, by H. S. Pariser. See website.


Cited in this Entry

NKAA Source: American Negro songs and spirituals: a comprehensive collection of 250 folk songs, religious and secular...
NKAA Source: The Adventure guide to the Dominican Republic
NKAA Source: New York observer and chronicle (newspaper)
NKAA Source: Crisis (periodical)

Related Entries Citing this Entry

NKAA Entry:  Proposed American Negro Colony in New Granada
NKAA Entry:  Colored Emigration Movement

Cite This NKAA Entry:

“Freemen Community on Samaná Bay (Dominican Republic),” Notable Kentucky African Americans Database, accessed October 24, 2020,

Last modified: 2019-03-13 16:11:11